The first 5 words you see describe you

My words are: güneş (sun- well, I’m in love with the sun), eğitim (education, I’m a Ph.D. student right? 😛 ), sevgi (love- because all we need is loooveee), Nutella (?! I’m not counting this, as is not even a Turkish word, but I do love Nutella ♥), kahve (coffee, of course ⭐ !) and sonuç (result, outcome)
Your turn!


9. Var/ Yok

yok varHey lazy ones! Ne var ne yok? It’s time to learn some Turkish grammar! Today we are going to learn how to use Var/Yok- There is/There is not correctly.

The Turkish Var and Yok are used to express the existence/absence of something or the possession.

Var-There is / Yok-There is not

  •       Masada bir elma var.- There is an apple on the table.
  •       Masada elma yok.- There is no apple on the table.

In case of possession we add the possessive suffixes to the noun:

  •      Bir elmam var.– I have an apple.
  •      Elmam yok.- I have no apple.
  •      Şüphem yok.-I have no doubt.
  •      Vaktımız var.-We have time.
  •      Paran yok.-You have no money.

Interrogative is formed by adding the question particle -mi (following the rules of vowel harmony) or using the interrogative pronouns/ adjectives/adverbs :

  •        Ekmek var mı?- Is there bread?
  •        Kitabın var mı?- Do you have a book?
  •        Evde kim var?- Who is in the house?
  •        Masada ne var?- What is on the table?
  •        Çantada defter yok mu?- Isn’t there a notebook in the bag?


  • Ne var ne yok?– How is it going?
  • Ne var?-What’s up? What’s the matter?
  • Bir varmış, bir yokmuş– Once upon a time

6. Cases-İsmin halleri


Turkish has six grammatical cases:

1. The Nominative -Yalın  Hal (Nominatif)

  • Used for subjects and indefinite objects
  • Answers to the questions: Kim?/Who? ; Ne?/What?
  • No suffixes

Exemples: Bana bir kalem ver, lütfen. -Please, give me a pen.

Güneş parlıyor. -The sun is shining.

2. The genitive- Genitif

  • Denotes possession
  • Answers to the question: Kimin?/Whose?
  • Suffixes: -(n)ın,-(n)in,-(n)un,-(n)ün

Exemples: Çocuğun kitabı- the child’s book

O araba benim.-That car is mine.

3. The dative- Datif

  • Expresses an indirect object or goal, movement to or towards the noun
  • Answers to the questions: Nereye?/ Where (to)?; Kime?/Whom?
  • Suffixes: -(y)e, -(y)a

Exemples: Eve gidiyorum.-I’m going home.

Orhan’a anlat.-Tell Orhan.

4. The Accusative- Akuzatif

  • Expresses a definite direct object
  • Answers to the questions: Kimi?/Who?; Neyi?/ What?
  • Suffixes: -(y)ı,-(y)i,-(y)u,-(y)ü

Exemples: Sözlüğü kullanıyorum.- I’m using the dictionary.

Kediyi gördüm.-I saw the cat.

5. The locative-Bulunma Hali

  • Expresses the place of action
  • Answers to the questions: Nerede?/Where?; Ne zaman?/When?
  • Suffixes: -de,-da,-te,-ta

Exemples: Annem mutfakta.-My mother is in the kitchen.

Çocuk bahçede.-The child is in the garden.

6. The ablative- Ablatif

  • Expresses the place (from which) or cause of action
  • Answers to the questions: Nereden?/ From where?; Neden?/Why?
  • Suffixes: -den,-dan,-ten,-tan

Examples: Okuldan geldi.-He came from school.

Kitaptan öğreniyorum.-I’m learning from the book.


  1. Linghea, Ghid de conversație româno-turc cu dicționar și gramatică, Timișoara, 2011
  2. Jeroen Aarssen, Ad Backus, Colloquial Turkish : The Complete Course for Beginners Colloquial Series, Taylor & Francis Routledge, 2001

Photo: [1]

4. Formation of plural nouns in Turkish

Sadece bir İstanbul… bir çok renk, duygu, kedi…
(Only one Istanbul… many colours, emotions, cats…)

Let’s break the myth of lazy Saturdays and learn the Turkish plural! In Turkish the plural is formed by adding the suffix –ler or -lar in accordance with the little vowel harmony.


Ev (house)-evler (houses)
Balık (fish)- balıklar (fishes)
Kedi (cat)- kediler (cats)
Kitap (book)- kitaplar (books)
Mektup (letter)- mektuplar (letters)

Harf (letter-alphabet)- harfler (letters)
Saat (hour)- saatler (hours)
Kalp (heart)- kalpler (hearts)

Many Turkish greetings are expressed by using the plural:
İyi günler!– have a nice day!
İyi akşamlar!– good afternoon/evening!
İyi geceler!– good night!
İyi yolculuklar!-have a nice journey!
İyi şanslar!- good luck!
İyi eğlenceler!- have a good time/ have fun!
Mutlu yıllar!-happy anniversary!
Mutlu bayramlar!-happy hollidays!
Renkli rüyalar!-Sweet (literary colourful) dreams!
Tebrikler!- Congratulations!

Other uses:
• Collective nouns: aile (family)- aileler (families)
• Personal nouns: Mehmetler (Mehmet and his family/friends)

! We don’t use plural suffixes with numerals and other words expressing quantities!
• Bir kalem (one pen)
• İki kalem (two pens)
• Çok kalem (many pens)
• Üç Silahşorlar– The Three Musketeers
• Yedi Cüceler– The Seven Dwarfs
• Kırk Haramiler– The Forty Thieves

1. Rosita D’Amora, Corso di Lingua Turca, Hoepli, 2012