5. Haydi zamirleri öğrenelim! Let’s learn the pronouns!

09cf6108b3ff4f2a74b8394995a23c4accafe20f34001_570Merhaba! Ben İulia! Sen Kimsin? Bu ne? Bu benim Türkiye ve Türkçe ile ilgili blogum. Sen Türkçeyi neden öğrenmek istiyorsun? Türkçe öğrenmeye ne zaman başladın? Nasıl öğreniyorsun? Türkçe düzeyin nedir? Kendine iyi bak ve zamirleri öğren!

Hello! I am Iulia! Who are you? What is this? This is my blog about Turkey and Turkish language. Why are you learning Turkish? When did you started to learn Turkish? How do you learn? What is your Turkish level? Take care and learn the pronouns!

Şahıs Zamirleri-Personal Pronouns
Ben-I
Sen-You
O-He, She, It
Biz-We
Siz-You
Onlar-They

İyelik Zamirleri- Possessive Pronouns
Benim-My
Senin-Your
Onun-His, Her, İts
Bizim-Our
Sizin-Your
Onların-Their
The possessive pronoun can be expressed by the following suffixes in accordance with the vowel harmony:
Pronoun     Suffixes                                                  Exemples
my               -(i)m, -(ı)m, -(u)m, -(ü)m                  Babam, kalemim
your             -(i)n, -(ı)n, -(u)n, -(ü)n                      Baban, kalemin
His,her,its  -(s)i, -(s)ı, -(s)u, -(s)ü                         Baba, kalemi
our               -(i)miz, -(ı)mız, -(u)muz, -(ü)müz   Babamız, kalemimiz
your              -(i)niz, -(ı)nız, -(u)nuz, -(ü)nüz       Babanız, kaleminiz
their              -ları, -leri                                             Babaları, kalemleri

İşaret zamirleri- Demonstrative Pronouns
Bu– This
Şu-That (between this and that, far but visible)
O-That

Soru zamirleri- Interrogative Pronouns
Kim?-Who?
Nasıl?-How?
Ne?-What?
Ne kadar?-How much? How many?
Kaç?-How many? (used usually for numerals)
Hangi?-Which?
Niçin? Neden? Niye?-Why?
Ne zaman?-When?

Dönüşlülük zamirleri-Reflexive pronouns
Kendim-Myself
Kendin-Yourself
Kendisi-Himself, Herself, Itself
Kendimiz-Ourselves
Kendiniz-Yourselves
Kendileri-Themselves

Bibliography:
1. Linghea, Ghid de conversație româno-turc cu dicționar și gramatică, Timișoara, 2011

Photo: [1]

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2. The Turkish Vowel and Consonant Harmony

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Have you ever wondered why Turkish is so different and difficult to learn? Well, one of the reasons is that Turkish is an agglutinative language. This means that words are formed by adding suffixes with grammatical or semantic meaning.  As you can see in the example above you can form a whole sentence in Turkish just by adding suffixes to the word stem. One word in Turkish can be translated into many words in English. Before learning the suffixes and their meaning you should understand the principles of vowel and consonant harmony, followed in word-formation and conjugation.
1. Vowel Harmony
There are two types of vowel harmony you need to know:

Little vowel harmony (suffixes of ‘e’ type)
• ‘a’, ‘ı’, ‘o’, ‘u’ can be followed by ‘a’
• ‘e’, ‘i’, ‘ö’, ‘ü’ can be followed by ‘e’
Examples: evler (houses), kapılar (doors, gates)

Great vowel harmony (suffixes of ‘i” type)
• ‘a’, ‘ı’ can be followed by ‘ı’
• ‘e’, ‘i’ can be followed by ‘i’
• ‘o’, ‘u’ can be followed by ‘u’
• ‘ö’, ‘ü’ can be followed by ‘ü’
Examples: temizlik (cleanness), hastalık (illness), gözlük (glasses), yağmurluk (raincoat)

Of course, there are some noteworthy exeptions:
• Turkish words like: anne (mother), elma (apple), şişman (fat)
• Words of foreign origin: tiyatro (theatre), kitap (book), lale (tulip), kalem (pen), rozbif (roast beef), röportaj (reportage), liman (port)
• Compound words: bugün(today)= bu (this)+ gün (day), Karadeniz (Black Sea)= kara (black)+ deniz (sea)
• Words formed with invariable Turkish suffixes: -ki, -ken, -(i)yor, -(e)bil 1

2. Consonant Harmony
Voiced consonants: ‘d’, ‘g’, ‘ğ’, ‘j’, ‘y’, ‘l’, ‘m’, ‘n’, ‘r’, ‘v’, ‘z’
Unvoiced consonants: ‘ç’, ‘f’, ‘k’, ‘p’, ‘s’, ‘ş’, ‘t’
When a word ends in the unvoiced consonants ‘p’, ‘ç’, ‘k’, ‘t’ and is added by a vowel or a syllable beginning with a vowel, the unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counterparts ‘b’, ‘c’, ‘ğ’, ‘d’ :
• ‘p’ changes into ‘b’: kitap+ ı= kitabı (his book)
• ‘ç’ changes into ‘c’: ağaç+ı= ağacı (his tree)
• ‘k’ changes into ‘ğ’: köpek+i= köpeği (his dog)
• ‘t’ changes into ‘ğ’: kanat+ı= kanadı (his wings)

Some exceptions:
• Monosyllabic word roots: maç+ı=maçı (his match), saç+ı=saçı (his hair), at+ı= atı (his horse), suç+u=suçu (his fault)
• Some words ending in ‘t’ or ‘nk’: hayat+ı= hayatı (his life), hürriyet+i=hürriyeti (his freedom), anket+i=anketi (his survey), bank+ı= bankı ( his bench)

Bibliography:
1. Rosita D’Amora, Corso di Lingua Turca, Hoepli, 2012
2. Yüksel Göknel, Turkish Grammar Updated Academic Edition, 2013

Video

1. Start with the beginning: Pronunciation

The Turkish Alphabet (Alfabe) has 29 letters (harf). Let’s learn their pronunciation!

8 vowels (ünlüler):
a– as `aa` in bazaar
e– as `e` in ten
ı– as `a`(first) in again, similar to Romanian `â`
i– as `i` in Turkish
o– as `o`in over
ö– as `u` in turn, similar to Hungarian and German `ö`
u– as `o`in who
ü– as `ue`in value, similar to Hungarian and German `ü`

21 consonants (ünsüzler):
b– as `b` in boy
c– as `j` in joke
ç– as `ch` in church
d– as `d` in dance
f– as `f` in face
g– as `g` in give
ğ– soft G- lenghtens the preceding vowel. ex. dağ (mountain) is pronounced daa
h– as `h` in hobby
j– as `s`in casual, similar to Romanian `j`
k– as `c` in cake
l– as `l` in learn
m– as `m` in moon
n– as `n` in name
p– as `p` in picture
r– as `r` in red
s– as `s` in summer
ş– as `sh`in shape
t- as `t` in travel
v– as `v` in village
y– as `y` in you
z– as `z` in zone

If you still have doubts about pronunciation check the following video (Turkish Alphabet for children):