The Turkish Var and Yok are used to express the existence/absence of something or the possession.
Var-There is / Yok-There is not
- Masada bir elma var.- There is an apple on the table.
- Masada elma yok.- There is no apple on the table.
In case of possession we add the possessive suffixes to the noun:
- Bir elmam var.– I have an apple.
- Elmam yok.- I have no apple.
- Şüphem yok.-I have no doubt.
- Vaktımız var.-We have time.
- Paran yok.-You have no money.
Interrogative is formed by adding the question particle -mi (following the rules of vowel harmony) or using the interrogative pronouns/ adjectives/adverbs :
- Ekmek var mı?- Is there bread?
- Kitabın var mı?- Do you have a book?
- Evde kim var?- Who is in the house?
- Masada ne var?- What is on the table?
- Çantada defter yok mu?- Isn’t there a notebook in the bag?
- Ne var ne yok?– How is it going?
- Ne var?-What’s up? What’s the matter?
- Bir varmış, bir yokmuş– Once upon a time